###### Summary:- Mass, Weight, Density or Specific Gravity of water at various temperatures C and thermal coefficient of expansion of water
Density, sg of water at different temps
[density & sg of pure & tap water] [density/0.1°C] [coeff. expansion of water]
[seawater] [steam]

• At 4°C pure water has a density (weight or mass) of about 1 g/cu.cm, 1 g/ml,
1 kg/litre, 1000 kg/cu.m, 1 tonne/cu.m or 62.4 lb/cu.ft

• At 4°C pure water has a specific gravity of 1. ( Some reference the s.g. base temperature as 60F.)

• Water is essential for life. Most animals and plants contain more than 60 % water by volume.

• More than 70 % of the Earth's surface is covered with about 1.36 billion cubic kilometers of water / ice

• The density of pure water is a constant at a particular temperature, and does not depend on the size of the sample. That is, it is an intensive property. The density of water varies with temperature and impurities.

• Water is the only substance on Earth that exists in all three physical states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.

• When water freezes it expands rapidly adding about 9 % by volume. Fresh water has a maximum density at around 4° Celsius. Water is the only substance where the maximum density does not occur when solidified. As ice is lighter than water, it floats.

• Water has a very simple atomic structure. This structure consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom - H2O

• Note; kg/m3 divided by 16.02 = lbs/cu.ft. kg/m3 divided by 1,000 = g/ml
Convert g/cm3 = g/cc = g/ml = g/mL - they are all the same.

#### Table of Density of Pure & Tap* Water and Specific Gravity

 Temp ( °C ) Density pure water ( g/cm3 ) Density pure water ( kg/m3 ) Density tap water ( g/cm3 ) Density pure water lb/cu.ft Specific Gravity 4°C reference Specific Gravity 60°F reference 0 (solid) 0.9150 915.0 - - 0.915 - 0 (liquid) 0.9999 999.9 0.99987 62.42 0.999 1.002 4 1.0000 1000 0.99999 62.42 1.000 1.001 20 0.9982 998.2 0.99823 62.28 0.998 0.999 40 0.9922 992.2 0.99225 61.92 0.992 0.993 60 0.9832 983.2 0.98389 61.39 0.983 0.985 80 0.9718 971.8 0.97487 60.65 0.972 0.973 100 (gas) 0.0006 - -

* This is for average, clean drinking water. It will vary from area to area.

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To use the table below, run down the left column for whole degrees then move across for tenths of a degree.
For example, the row/column shaded in yellow shows the density of pure water at 17.7°C = 0.998650 grams/cm3

#### Density of Water (g/cm3) at Temperatures from 0°C (liquid state) to 30.9°C by 0.1°C inc.

thanks to Chuck Snelling

 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0 0.999841 0.999847 0.999854 0.99986 0.999866 0.999872 0.999878 0.999884 0.999889 0.999895 1 0.9999 0.999905 0.999909 0.999914 0.999918 0.999923 0.999927 0.99993 0.999934 0.999938 2 0.999941 0.999944 0.999947 0.99995 0.999953 0.999955 0.999958 0.99996 0.999962 0.999964 3 0.999965 0.999967 0.999968 0.999969 0.99997 0.999971 0.999972 0.999972 0.999973 0.999973 4 0.999973 0.999973 0.999973 0.999972 0.999972 0.999972 0.99997 0.999969 0.999968 0.999966 5 0.999965 0.999963 0.999961 0.999959 0.999957 0.999955 0.999952 0.99995 0.999947 0.999944 6 0.999941 0.999938 0.999935 0.999931 0.999927 0.999924 0.99992 0.999916 0.999911 0.999907 7 0.999902 0.999898 0.999893 0.999888 0.999883 0.999877 0.999872 0.999866 0.999861 0.999855 8 0.999849 0.999843 0.999837 0.99983 0.999824 0.999817 0.99981 0.999803 0.999796 0.999789 9 0.999781 0.999774 0.999766 0.999758 0.999751 0.999742 0.999734 0.999726 0.999717 0.999709 10 0.9997 0.999691 0.999682 0.999673 0.999664 0.999654 0.999645 0.999635 0.999625 0.999615 11 0.999605 0.999595 0.999585 0.999574 0.999564 0.999553 0.999542 0.999531 0.99952 0.999509 12 0.999498 0.999486 0.999475 0.999463 0.999451 0.999439 0.999427 0.999415 0.999402 0.99939 13 0.999377 0.999364 0.999352 0.999339 0.999326 0.999312 0.999299 0.999285 0.999272 0.999258 14 0.999244 0.99923 0.999216 0.999202 0.999188 0.999173 0.999159 0.999144 0.999129 0.999114 15 0.999099 0.999084 0.999069 0.999054 0.999038 0.999023 0.999007 0.998991 0.998975 0.998959 16 0.998943 0.998926 0.99891 0.998893 0.998877 0.99886 0.998843 0.998826 0.998809 0.998792 17 0.998774 0.998757 0.998739 0.998722 0.998704 0.998686 0.998668 0.99865 0.998632 0.998613 18 0.998595 0.998576 0.998558 0.998539 0.99852 0.998501 0.998482 0.998463 0.998444 0.998424 19 0.998405 0.998385 0.998365 0.998345 0.998325 0.998305 0.998285 0.998265 0.998244 0.998224 20 0.998203 0.998183 0.998162 0.998141 0.99812 0.998099 0.998078 0.998056 0.998035 0.998013 21 0.997992 0.99797 0.997948 0.997926 0.997904 0.997882 0.99786 0.997837 0.997815 0.997792 22 0.99777 0.997747 0.997724 0.997701 0.997678 0.997655 0.997632 0.997608 0.997585 0.997561 23 0.997538 0.997514 0.99749 0.997466 0.997442 0.997418 0.997394 0.997369 0.997345 0.99732 24 0.997296 0.997271 0.997246 0.997221 0.997196 0.997171 0.997146 0.99712 0.997095 0.997069 25 0.997044 0.997018 0.996992 0.996967 0.996941 0.996914 0.996888 0.996862 0.996836 0.996809 26 0.996783 0.996756 0.996729 0.996703 0.996676 0.996649 0.996621 0.996594 0.996567 0.99654 27 0.996512 0.996485 0.996457 0.996429 0.996401 0.996373 0.996345 0.996317 0.996289 0.996261 28 0.996232 0.996204 0.996175 0.996147 0.996118 0.996089 0.99606 0.996031 0.996002 0.995973 29 0.995944 0.995914 0.995885 0.995855 0.995826 0.995796 0.995766 0.995736 0.995706 0.995676 30 0.995646 0.995616 0.995586 0.995555 0.995525 0.995494 0.995464 0.995433 0.995402 0.995371 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

#### The Expansion of Water at Various Temperatures

 The following table shows the volume that 1 gram of water occupies as temperature varies. Data corrected for buoyancy and for the thermal expansion of the container.
Temperature (°C)
Volume (mL)
17.0
1.0022
18.0
1.0024
19.0
1.0026
20.0
1.0028
21.0
1.0030
22.0
1.0033
23.0
1.0035
24.0
1.0037
25.0
1.0040
26.0
1.0043

The thermal coefficient of expansion of water is 0.00021 per 1° Celsius at 20° Celsius.

#### The Specific Gravity of Seawater

The specific gravity of surface seawater ranges from about 1.020 to 1.029
At the bottom of the oceans the specific gravity increases up to about 1.070
The colder the seawater the more dense.
The saltier the seawater the more dense.
The salilinty changes the specific gravity far more than the temperature does.
Tropical fresh water, like in Gatun Lake on the Panama Canal, has a specific gravity of only 0.9954
The Red Sea, hot, landlocked and arid has a specific gravity of about 1.029

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